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African swine fever (ASF) is a hemorrhagic viral disease that has been introduced spread into to European Union (EU) MSMember States, through via two distinct spread processes. 1 The first process involves : continuous wild boarmediated 2 spread through wild boar populations and meta 3 populations, for which the speed of propagation is notably considerably slower than that for of some other infectious wild boar diseases in wild boar. The second process ; andinvolves humanmediated translocations leading to the establishment of new ASF clusters distant from areas of previous ASF occurrence via human-mediated translocations. In affected areas within the established ASF range, tThere has been continued sporadic detection of cases in affected areas within the established ASF range despite very low wild boar densities of wild boars. The fFocal introduction of ASF into wild boars in the Czech Republic was the only occasion incidence of controlled spread of in which ASF spread in wild boar was apparently controlled. Elsewhere, ASF continues s to expand into new areas in other regions. In most affected countries, there number of outbreaks have has been many cases high in wild boars and relatively few low outbreaks in domestic pigs. However, Iin Romania, however, the opposite has been observed. This e observationed pattern in Romania should be interpreted with caution until the potential for underdetection of ASF in wild boar populations can be excluded as a possibility. This will require systematic surveillance activities in of wild boar populations. Underdetection of ASF in wild boars could also occur even in other regions, and this should be can be avoided through intense passive surveillance of wild boars. The tTemporal patterns in the proportions of positive-tested samples that are positive are consistent with reflect the different epidemiological situations status in the countries. For example, in Lithuania, there is both spatial expansion of the ASFaffected area and an increase in the proportion of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)positive wild boars animals among those wild boar found dead are noted. By In contrast, in Estonia, there is a a reduction decrease in the proportion of PCRpositive wild boars results in the last reporting period among thosewild boar found dead in the last reporting period has been noted, given that ASF given that infection has been present throughout the whole country for several years.

Explanations

ASF has been introduced into European Union (EU) 1 MS, through via two distinct spread processes: continuous wild boarmediated spread through wild boar populations 2 and meta 3 populations, (via for which the speed of propagation is notably slower than offor some other infectious diseases in wild boars); and humanmediated translocations (which leading to the establishment of new ASF clusters distant from areas of previous ASF occurrence). In affected areas within the established ASF range, there has been continued sporadic detection of cases despite very low densities of wild boars densities. The fFocal introduction of ASF into wild boars in the Czech Republic was the only occasion in on which ASF spread in wild boars was apparently controlled. Elsewhere, ASF continues to expand into new areas. In mMost affected countries, there have been many reported cases in wild boars and relatively few outbreaks in domestic pigs. In Romania, however, the opposite has been observed. This e observationed pattern in Romania should be interpreted with caution until the potential for underdetection of ASF in wild boar populations can be excluded as a possibility. This will require systematic surveillance activities in of wild boar populations. Underdetection of ASF in wild boars could also occur in other regions, and should be avoided through intense passive surveillance of wild boars. The tTemporal patterns in the proportions of tested samples that are tested positive are consistent with the different epidemiological situations in the countries. For example, in Lithuania, there is both spatial expansion of the ASFaffected area and an increase in the proportion of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)positive wild boars animals among those wild boar found dead. By In contrast, in Estonia, there is a reduction decrease in the proportion of PCRpositive wild boars results in the last reporting period among thosewild boar found dead in the last reporting period, given that ASF given that infection has been present throughout the whole country for several years.

Explanations

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