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Electronless nickel-phosphorous coatings are widely used widely 1 in many of the industrial applications because of their unique properties, including ofsuch as being highly wear resistant and, high corrosion resistant and , being highly very hard and tough property as well as, and a good lubricanttion. By cA functional nanometer composite coating is produced by an electroless codeposition process that combinatesing nanosized particles as a reinforcing phase inside within of athe Ni-P matrix. to obtain functional nanometer composite coating with electronless co-deposition procesTs, the combined properties of the Ni-P coating are to be mainly improvements,d butand sometimes different nanoparticles new features are fully added to enhance the coating performance by the combination of their totally new features. For Fthis purpose, or instance, different nanoparticles like such as nano-SiC, WC, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO increase as hardneser particles in the coatings, and nanoparticles such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE2 ), MoS2, and graphite as increase lubrication particles are added for the coatings. out oOf these nanoparticles, PTFE has got aroused tremendous interest by due to its properties, like aincluding its low surface energy and lower friction coefficient, (good being for non-stickerstick surfaces or and, dry lubricants)ity, its anti-fouling properties, and very its good wear and corrosion resistancet. Ni-P-PTFE can be used as an anti-sticking coating. Condensed The condensed fluorine atoms in these molecules at in the outer layer are the main cause source of the physical properties of PTFE polymer like such as its low surface energy (18.6 mN/m) and very its remarkably lower friction coefficient, both excellent properties for anti-stick coatings. By co-deposition of PTFE in the matrix of the coating, the properties of both Ni-P and PTFE can be used simultaneously. PTFE has excellent anti-stick properties due to the low surface energy of PTFE polymer (18.6mN/m). The refore another potential application of a Ni-P-PTFE composite is to the reduction for of fouling. For example, is foreseen as a solution to the serious problem of the formation of deposits resembling limestone with on the surfaces of heat-exchange exchangers or heat-exchange elements is a serious problem. These sediments are one of the natures inherent problems ion the designation and operation of many types of production and processing equipments and processes. Unasked forThese unwanted sediments can affect the equipment in two ways are : 3

   The lower thermal conductivity of the formed deposited sediments can increase heat-transfer resistance for heat transfer, and therebyfore reducinges the heat-exchanger efficiency of heat-exchanging exchangers.

   Fouling the ducts reduces the cross-sectional area of the fluid path, causing and theincreased friction becomes higher, causing to an increase of and a pressure drop across the system.4

Any mMethodss for reducing such sediments sedimentary build-up can decreaseing costs. It wasWe found that the adhesion of the formed such sediments on the surfaces with low surface energy is poor. For this purposereason, many polymeric coatings have been used. The lLower thermal conductivity, and low wear resistance as well asand poor adhesion of to the substrate of the conventional polymer coatings have limited their industrial applications. Since Because Ni-P-PTFE coating is metallic based on a metallic composite, its thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, and wear -resistant properties are much bigger better than PTFE coatings, while and it also has a a lesslow friction coefficient and low surface energy.

Explanations

Electronless nickel-phosphorous coatings are widely used widely 1 in many of the industrial applications because of their unique properties, including of high wear resistantresistance, high corrosion resistance,resistant, highly hardness and toughness propertyproperties, and good lubrication. By cBy combiningating nanosized particles as a reinforcing phase inside within of athe Ni-P matrix, a to obtain functional nanometer composite coating with is produced by an electroless electronless codeposition-deposition procesprocess. Ts, the combined properties of the Ni-P coating are to be mainly improved and sometimes new features are fully added to the coating performance. For Fthis purpose, or instance, different nanoparticles like such as nano-SiC, WC, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO increase as hardneser particles in the coatings, and nanoparticles such as PTFE, MoS2, and graphite as increase lubrication particles are added for the coatings. out oOf these nanoparticles, PTFE has got aroused tremendous interest by due to its properties, like aincluding low surface energy and lower friction coefficient, (good being for non-stickerstick surfaces or and, dry lubricants)ity, anti-fouling properties, and very good wear and corrosion resistancet. Ni-P-PTFE can be used as an anti-sticking coating. Condensed The condensed fluorine atoms in these molecules at in the outer layer are the main cause source of the physical properties of PTFE polymer like such as its low surface energy and very its remarkably lower friction coefficient. By co-deposition of PTFE in the matrix of the coating, the properties of both Ni-P and PTFE can be used simultaneously. PTFE has excellent anti-stick properties due to the low surface energy of PTFE polymer (18.6 mN/m). The refore another potential application of a Ni-P-PTFE composite is to the reduction for of fouling. For example, is foreseen as a solution to the serious problem of the formation of deposits resembling limestone with on the surfaces of heat-exchange exchangers or heat-exchange elements is a serious problem. These sediments are one of the natures inherent problems ion the designation and operation of many types of production and processing equipments and processes. Unasked forThese unwanted sediments can affect the equipment in two ways are : 2

   The lower thermal conductivity of the formed sediments can increase heat-transfer resistance for heat transfer, and therebyfore reducinges the heat-exchanger efficiency of heat-exchanging exchangers.

   Fouling the ducts reduces the cross-sectional area of the fluid path, causing and theincreased friction becomes higher, causing to an increase of and a pressure drop across the system.3

Any mMethodss for reducing such sediments sedimentary build-up can decreaseing costs. It wasWe found that the adhesion of the formed such sediments on the surfaces with low surface energy is poor. For this purposeTherefore, many polymeric coatings have been used. The lLower thermal conductivity, and low wear resistance as well asand poor adhesion of to the substrate of the conventional polymer coatings have limited their industrial applications. Since Because Ni-P-PTFE coating is metallic based on a metallic composite, its thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, and wear -resistant properties are much bigger better than PTFE coatings, while and it also has a less low surface energy.

Explanations

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