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Adding surface-active materials such as nanoparticles is an One of the newborn  1  emerging methods to of create creating wettability alteration is adding certain surface-active materials, including nanoparticles. Nanotechnology has the potential tocan introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industry, for example such as the exploration, production, enhanced oil recovery, and refining (Shah, 2009). Nanoparticles are defined asare surface- active agents, because they havewith a very small particle size, which helps them penetrate into the pore volume of porous media, stick on the core surface, and, by creating homogeneous water-wet area, increase surface energy more than the surface tension of water by creating homogeneous water-wet area. ThusWith this scheme ,  2 the wettability is altered to water-wet and oil is pulled outextracted from the core surface. Recently, only a Only a few studies have been carried outconducted recently, whereas and still a lot ofseveral questions on the influence of nanoparticles on spontaneous imbibitionSI, wettability alteration, and the possible improvement of oil recovery have been remained  3 remain unanswered. Clark et al. (1990) found that when an aqueous metal was added into the process, the heavy oil viscosity was further reduced. Cacciola et al. (1993) reported described that nanoparticles to demonstrate have a benign activity, selectivity, and stability for the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. Ali et al. (2004) and Temple et al. (2005) was investigatedinvestigated the effect of nanoparticles on lowering the permeability of shale in drilling fields and. found that Nanoparticles nanoparticles succeeded in blocking water inversion and decreasing the strength of the shale wall. Zhang (2010)  4 asserted that no straining of nanoparticles occurs When as nanoparticles they are passed through porous media, there is no straining of nanoparticles (Zhang, 2010), whereas. Yu et al. (2010) foundclaimed that the nanoparticles areshould be roughly 2two orders of magnitude smaller to be able to pass through the porous media.  5 [r1]  Fan et al. (2009) studied performed experimentally experiments using ionic liquids to upgrade heavy oil and. They found that ionic the liquids could decrease the viscosity, average molecular weight, and asphaltene content of the heavy oil. Similarly, Chen et al. (2009) studied the viscosity reduction of nanoparticles in the catalytic aqua-thermolysis of heavy oil. Clark et al. (1990) revealed further reduction in the heavy oil viscosity when an aqueous metal was added into the process.Yu et al. (2010) found nanoparticles are roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller to be able to pass through porous media.[r2] 

Explanations

One of the newborn  1  emerging methods to of create creating wettability alteration is adding certain surface-active materials, including nanoparticles. Nanotechnology has the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industry, for example such as the exploration, production, enhanced oil recovery, and refining (Shah, 2009). By definition, Nanoparticles nanoparticles are defined asare surface-active agents, because as they have a very small particle size, which helps them penetrate into the pore volume of porous media, stick on the core surface, and, by creating homogeneous water-wet area, increase surface energy more than the surface tension of water. ThusWith this scheme ,  2  the wettability is altered to water-wet and oil is pulled out from the core surface. Recently, only a Only a few studies have been carried outconducted recently, whereas and still a lot ofseveral questions on the influence of nanoparticles on SI, wettability alteration, and the possible improvement of oil recovery have been remained remain unanswered. Clark et al. (1990) found revealed further reduction in the heavy oil viscosity that when an aqueous metal was added into the process, the heavy oil viscosity was further reduced. Cacciola et al. (1993) reported described that the nanoparticles to demonstrate have a benign activity, selectivity, and stability for the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. Ali et al. (2004) and Temple et al. (2005) was investigatedinvestigated the effect of nanoparticles on lowering the permeability of shale in drilling fields and. found that Nanoparticles nanoparticles succeeded in blocking water inversion and decreasing the strength of the shale wall. Zhang (2010)  3  asserted that no straining of nanoparticles occurs When as nanoparticles they are passed through porous media, there is no straining of nanoparticles (Zhang, 2010). Fan et al. (2009) studied performed experimentally experiments using ionic liquids to upgrade heavy oil and. They found that ionic the liquids could decrease the viscosity, average molecular weight, and asphaltene content of the heavy oil. Similarly, Chen et al. (2009) studied the viscosity reduction of nanoparticles in the catalytic aqua-thermolysis of heavy oil. Yu et al. (2010) found claimed that the nanoparticles are should be roughly 2 two orders of magnitude smaller to be able to pass through the porous media.

Explanations

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