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ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) 1  are ion channels that selectively allow potassium ions to permeate thea cell. They are widely distributed among tissues, including those of the pancreas, brain, heart, and smooth muscles, and play important roles in many physiological processes, such as hormone secretion and vasodilatation.  2  KATPTheir channels activities are tightly regulated by endogenous nucleotide metabolites. Specifically; in particular, they are inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activated by Mg-adenosine diphosphate (ADP.). By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio, KATP these channels tuneregulate the potassium ion efflux across the plasma membrane and adjust the membrane potential. Therefore, KATP channels they  3  convert the cellular metabolic status into electrical signals, which provide a unique output that haswith broad physiological effects. KATP channels are widely distributed in many tissues, including the pancreas, brain, heart, and smooth muscle, and they playimportant roles in many physiological processes, such as hormone secretion and vasodilatation. Genetic mutationBecause mutation of genes  4  that encode KATP channel subunits can leadare known to cause several metabolic diseases and neuronal diseases. Therefore, KATP KATP channels are important drug targets. Clinically relevant sulfonylureas drugs inhibit pancreatic KATP channels and serve as insulin secretagogues for the treatment of treating type II diabetes, whilewhereas KATP activators, such as potassium channel openers (KCOs) activate KATP channels, are used for treating hypoglycemia, and show promise formay be involved in myoprotection. Previous studies have established that the A functional KATP KATP channel is a hetero-octamer composed of comprising four inward-rectifying potassium channel 6 (Kir6) subunits and four sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) regulatory subunits. The Kir6 subunits are encoded by eitherKCNJ8 KCNJ8 (Kir6.1) or or KCNJ11 (Kir6.2). Kir6 subunits and harbor sites for inhibitory ATP binding. The activities of Kir6 subunit activities can be enhanced by PIP2, which is a signaling lipid present in the inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. The SUR subunits are composed of the N-terminal transmembrane domain 0-loop 0 (TMD0-L0) and ATP-binding cassettescassette (ABC) transporter-like modules.

Explanations

ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) 1  are ion channels that selectively allow potassium ions to permeate thea cell. Their channel activities are tightly regulated by endogenous nucleotide metabolites. SpecificallyIn particular, they are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP.. By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio, KATP these channels tuneregulate the potassium ion efflux across the plasma membrane and adjust the membrane potential. Therefore, KATP channels they  2  convert the cellular metabolic status into electrical signals, which provide a unique output that haswith broad physiological effects. KATP channels are widely distributed in many several tissues, including those of the pancreas, brain, heart, and smooth muscle, and they playare important roles in many physiological processes, such as hormone secretion and vasodilatation. Genetic mutationMutation of genes that encode KATP channel subunits can lead to cause several metabolic diseases and neuronal diseases. Therefore, KATP these channels are important drug targets. Clinically relevant sulfonylureas drugs inhibit pancreatic KATP channels and serve as insulin secretagogues for the treatment oftreating type II diabetes, whilewhereas KATP activators, such as potassium channel openers (KCOs) activate KATP channels, are used for treating hypoglycemia, and show promise for myoprotection. Previous studies have established that the functional KATP channel is a hetero-octamer composed of four inward-rectifying potassium channel 6 (Kir6) subunits and four sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) regulatory subunits. The Kir6 subunits are encoded by eitherKCNJ8 KCNJ8 (Kir6.1) or or KCNJ11 (Kir6.2). Kir6 subunits and harbor sites for inhibitory ATP binding. The activities of Kir6 can be enhanced by PIP2, which is a signaling lipid present in the inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. The SUR subunits are composed of the N-terminal transmembrane domain 0-loop 0 (TMD0-L0) and ATP-binding cassettescassette (ABC) transporter-like modules.

Explanations

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